Language used in textbooks, schools and other academic settings. Typically it’s cognitively demanding because it’s used to describe concepts and abstract ideas, has a specialized vocabulary, and has a more complex sentence structure than social language. Academic English includes words like classify and evaluate as well as content-specific words like denominator and adverb.
This approach focuses on people's strengths and potential rather than focusing on their deficits or limitations. It views their language, culture, diversity and other traits as assets. (Same as strength-based approach)
Resources available in the school and community to help your program address student and family needs and to leverage student and family strengths or assets.
Involves two cultures in a form of coexistence.
A program in which students receive content instruction in two languages. The instructor may teach in one language for part of the day and in another language for the other part of the school day.
Words that are similar in spelling and meaning in two languages.
Language used in textbooks, schools and other academic settings. Typically it’s cognitively demanding because it’s used to describe concepts and abstract ideas, has a specialized vocabulary, and has a more complex sentence structure than social language. Academic English includes words like classify and evaluate as well as content-specific words like denominator and adverb. (Same as academic language)
The level of difficulty relative to what a person knows when performing a task or learning new knowledge. Tasks with greater cognitive demand are more challenging and require greater mental effort than tasks with lower cognitive demand..
An academic subject such as language arts, mathematics, social studies, science, art, music, financial literacy that that includes specific knowledge, skills and vocabulary. In school, a content area may be defined and assessed according to standards set by experts in the field..
Communication that occurs in a context of shared understanding, where there are cues or signals that help to reveal the meaning, like visual clues, gestures, facial expressions or a specific location.
Communication where there are few clues about the meaning of the communication apart from the words themselves. The language is likely to be abstract and/or academic. Examples include textbook reading and classroom lectures.
The ability to work and respond in a manner that acknowledges and respects individuals' culturally based beliefs, attitudes, behaviors and customs
The patterns of beliefs, practices and traditions associated with a group of people. Culture affects a child's development; societal, institutional and cultural norms for developmental stages may differ.
A model created by Jim Cummins to determine the difficulty of a task based on the level of cognitive demand and contextual support.
Refers to learners who don’t speak English as their first language (e.g., ESL students). Also refers to a federally funded program with specially licensed teachers who hold a Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) certification or diploma. ESL is often used interchangeably with EL and ELL, but the ESL label is being phased out. Students in ESL programs are pulled out of their general education classes for specialized, intensive English language instruction.
A person's ability to read, write, listen and speak in English; to use English fluently across a variety of contexts; and to monitor and self-correct their own use of English.
Standards that define expectations for English language proficiency in reading, writing, listening, and speaking in grades K-12. Title III of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) requires states to develop or adopt ELP standards and to develop assessments that align to those standards.
The belief that one's skills, character, intelligence, and creative ability are "fixed" and cannot change. Opposite of "growth mindset."
The belief that one's skills, character, intelligence, and creative ability can be developed with practice over time. Opposite of "fixed mindset."
A survey given to an English learner's parents or guardians to help schools and districts determine if a student is an English learner, is eligible for language assistance services under Title III, and will be required to take an English language proficiency assessment.
A program in which students receive content instruction in a language other than their native language. Students learn the new language as they learn the course content.
The process of assessing student needs; designing a set of delivery strategies, interventions and activities that will engage those students while helping them build skills and knowledge they need to succeed; and recruiting the targeted students for which the activities were designed.
A person's first or native language.
A person's second language; a language other than a person's first or native language.
A learning environment that includes language supports like word walls, anchor charts, sentence frames and starters, read-alouds, and a library of diverse books. It presents students with deliberate, repetitive and engaging opportunities to use and interact with language. Program space is used to display language and help students acquire academic language.
The term ‘limited English proficient’ was previously used as the Federal designation for all EL and ESL students, as defined in the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001. More recently, this term has been replaced with "English Learner" for use as the Federal designation for all EL and ESL students, as defined in the Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015.
How different one language is from another. For example, romance languages are "closer in distance" to English than Russian or Vietnamese because romance languages use a similar alphabet and have words that are similar to each other in meaning and spelling (cognates), while Russian and Vietnamese use a different alphabet and share few cognates.
Students who have been classified as ELs for 5 years or more. Typically, long-term ELs are students born to families in the U.S. who speak languages other than English or who immigrated to the U.S. at a very young age.
The four modalities of language include receptive language (listening and reading) and expressive language (writing and speaking).
People who don't speak English as their first language; students who are learning academic content and the language of instruction simultaneously. Sometimes called English language learners (ELLs) or multilingual learners (MLLs). (Same as EL and ELL)
Foreign-born students and their families who recently arrived in the U.S. Newcomers' experience with education and their literacy in English and in their first language may vary widely.
Organizational culture is a system of shared assumptions, values and beliefs that govern how people in an organization behave. Organizational climate is what stakeholders see and experience that indicates the organization has certain beliefs or values.
A skeleton structure for a paragraph that provides cues for organizing main ideas, transitions and supportive details.
Data that describes qualities or characteristics.
Data that can be counted, measured and expressed in numbers.
Classification of English learners (ELs) based on their level of English language proficiency (ELP). Schools reclassify EL students when their ELP assessment scores show they no longer require EL services and are thus "exiting" from the EL program.
The process of uniting family members after a period of separation. For example, a mother may have migrated to the United States three years prior to her child migrating from their home country.
Providing support that scaffolds language in the following ways: simplified language, teacher modeling, visuals, multimedia, cooperative learning, graphics, and hands-on learning.
A fill-in the blank sentence structure.
An instructional approach for making grade-level content accessible and comprehensible for English learners above the beginner level of language acquisition by using scaffolding strategies and supports to communicate the content and engage learners. May include cooperative learning, connecting to students' experiences, use of visuals and demonstrations, adapting text and providing supplementary materials.
Period of time when a student who's a newcomer to the U.S. is taking in the language and environment around them but isn't ready to take the risk of speaking English.
Language used in social settings and everyday life. Typically it’s cognitively undemanding and easy to understand because of its simple vocabulary and sentence structure. Social English includes phrases like “what’s up” and “catch you later.”
This approach focuses on people's strengths and potential rather than focusing on their deficits or limitations. It views their language, culture, diversity and other traits as assets.
"Title III, Part A — English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act" is part of the federal Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). It aims to ensure that English learners and immigrant students attain English language proficiency and high levels of academic achievement. Title III also ensures that ELs meet the same challenging state academic standards that all children are expected to meet. It authorizes funds for English language acquisition programs.
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